中国酒文化 中国酒文化知识

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导语: Chinese Wine Culture(Learn to spread China and Chinese cuIture in EngIish)Wine culture is an important part of the Chinese food and drink culture.According to The Book of Rites, the water ancient Chinese offered to god was called xuanjiu or mingshui by la...

Chinese Wine Culture

(Learn to spread China and Chinese cuIture in EngIish)

中国酒文化

中国酒文化

中国酒文化

中国酒文化

中国酒文化

Wine culture is an important part of the Chinese food and drink culture.According to The Book of Rites, the water ancient Chinese offered to god was called xuanjiu or mingshui by later generations.

酒文化是中国饮食文化的重要组成部分。根据《礼记》,中国古代祭祀上天的用水被后人称为玄酒或明水。

The Chinese do not see wine as one of the necessities of life, but the culture of wine has made, and continues to make, an impact on the way the Chinese live. In the long history of China, many things are more advanced than the rest of the world and wine is one of them. In China, wine brewed from cereal grain has always been in the dominant position and wine brewed from fruits accounts for a small proportion only,because fruits are seasonal and cannot retain their freshness for long compared to grain,fruits wine-making technology was not adopted extensively in ancient China.

中国人并不认为酒是生活必需品之一,但酒文化已经并将继续对中国人的生活方式产生影响。在中国漫长的历史中,许多东西都比世界其他地方更先进,酒就是其中之一。在中国,谷物酿造的酒一直占据主导地位,果酒只占很小的比例。与谷物相比,水果是季节性的,不能长时间保持新鲜,因此,中国古代没有广泛采用水果酿酒技术。

The origins of the alcoholic beverage from fermented grain in China cannot be traced definitively. A legend said that Yidi, the wife of the first dynasty's king Yu invented the method. Another legend says that liquor was invented by Du Kang. At that time millet was the main grain, the so-called “yellow liquor". It was not until the 19th century that distilled drinks become more popular. Traditionally, Chinese distilled liquors are consumed together with food rather than drunk on their own.

中国发酵谷物酒精饮料的起源无法确定。传说第一个朝代禹王的妻子仪狄发明了这种方法。另一个传说是杜康发明了酒。当时,小米是主要谷物,酿的酒即所谓的“黄酒”。直到19世纪,蒸馏酒才变得更普通。传统上,中国蒸馏酒与食物一起食用,而不是单独饮用。

Chinese wine making can be traced back as far as 4000 B.C.,to the early period of the Neolithic Yangshao Culture. During its long development, Chinese wine has developed distinctive characteristics.

中国酿酒可以追溯到公元前4000年,即新石器时代仰韶文化的早期。在漫长的发展过程中,酒形成了鲜明的自身特色。

The development of wine making techniques can be divided into two stages.The first is the natural fermentation stage. It has a history of several thousand years and the traditional fermenting technique developed gradually into a mature level.Even in present day, the natural fermenting tecnique has not disappeared completely and something about such technique still remains a mystery. People made wine based on their experience and the production scale was relatively small. Everything was done by manual labor and there were no reliable standards to guarantee the quality of wine.

酿酒技术的发展可分为两个阶段。第一个阶段是自然发酵阶段。它有几千年的历史,传统的发酵技术逐渐发展到成熟的水平。即使在今天,自然发酵技术也没有完全消失,这种技术的某些方面仍然是个谜。人们根据自己的经验酿造酒,生产规模相对较小。所有的工作都是手工完成的,没有可靠的标准来保证酒的质量。

The second stage starts from the Republic of China. With the introduction of western science and technology, especially knowledge of microbiology, biological chemistry and engineering, the traditional wine making technique changed tremendously. People learned the mysteries about the wine brewing microworld. The labor intensity of wine making was reduced greatly and the mechanical level was raised, which were helpful for guaranteeing the quality of wine.

第二阶段始于民国时期。随着西方科学技术的引进,特别是微生物学、生物化学和工程学的知识,传统的酿酒技术发生了巨大的变化。人们了解了酿酒微世界的奥秘。大大降低了酿酒的劳动强度,提高了机械化水平,有利于保证酒的质量。

With the continuous social and economic development, the manufacturing techniques, materials and shapes of wine vessels also changed correspondingly in different periods. That's why there are so many kinds of wine vessels unearthed today. The wine vessels can be divided into the following categories according to the materials they are made of: natural wine vessels ( made of wood, bamboo, animal horn, sea snail, gourd), pottery wine vessels, bronze wine vessels, painted wine vessels, porcelain wine vessels, jade, crystal vessels, gold and silver wine vessels,tin wine vessels, cloisonné wine vessels, glass wine vessels, aluminum pot, stainless steel wine vessels, plastic bags, paper containers, etc.

随着社会经济的不断发展,酒器的制造工艺、材料和形状在不同时期也发生了相应的变化。这就是为什么今天出土了这么多种类的酒器。酒器按材质可分为以下几类:天然酒器(由木头、竹子、动物角、海螺、葫芦制成)、陶瓷酒器、青铜酒器、彩绘酒器、瓷器酒器、玉器、水晶酒器、金银酒器、锡酒器、景泰蓝酒器、玻璃酒器、铝酒器、不锈钢酒器、塑料酒、纸酒器等。

Traditionally, wine had three important uses: to perform rituals, to dispel one's worries and to heal.

传统上,酒有三个重要的用途:履行仪式、消除忧虑和治愈疾病。

More and more researches show that stress accounts for the deterioration of modern human's health. Human's ability to deal with stress used to be an important area of medical research. Recent research shows that frequent and moderate drinking of liquor, especially grape wine, is one of the effective methods of relieving stress. Drinking alcohol can also reduce the catecholamine which generates with stress occurrence, so moderate drinking of alcohol can inhibit and relieve stress so as to help people keep health physically and psychologically.

越来越多的研究表明,压力是导致现代人的健康日益恶化的原因。人类应对压力的能力曾经是医学研究的一个重要领域。最近的研究表明,频繁适度饮酒,尤其是葡萄酒,是缓解压力的有效方法之一。饮酒还可以减少压力发生时产生的儿茶酚胺,因此适量饮酒可以抑制和缓解压力,帮助人们在生理和心理上保持健康。

With the quick development of modern society, there appears more health-related problems, among which being fat is one of the biggest. Wine can promote people's appetite through stimulation of sensational organs especially taste buds.However, wine is abundant with vitamin B, especially vitamin B1 which can speed up sugar metabolism. Wine is also rich in flavodoxine and sulfide which can accelerate metabolism. So wine can help to clear up some fat resulting from lack of exercise and overeating.

随着现代社会的快速发展,出现了更多与健康相关的问题,其中肥胖是最大的问题之一。酒可以通过刺激感觉器官,特别是味觉来促进人们的食欲。酒富含维生素B,尤其是维生素B1,它可以加速糖的代谢。酒还富含黄多辛和硫化物,可加速新陈代谢。因此,酒可以帮助清除因缺乏锻炼和暴饮暴食而产生的脂肪。

声明:文中的英文取材于孙立新主编、中国海洋大学出版社出版的《中国文化要览》。著作权属于原作者,本资料室借用相关英文材料,旨在促进中国文化的宣传和普及。如有侵权,联系删除。

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